The apple bumble bee

Given the popularity of apples in Britain you could be forgiven for expecting the apple bumble bee (Bombus pomorum) to be one of the species found here. However, think again. The Bumblebee Conservation Trust’s website records sightings on the south coast in the mid-1800s, whilst the equally highly-reputable NBN Atlas, which holds more than 198 million UK species records, has only two mentions for the apple bumble bee. They are both historic sightings.

The apple bumble bee (Bombus pomorum) © Picto Sauvignet louis didier, Wikipedia Creative Commons

Dave Goulson’s highly regarded and hugely enjoyable ‘A Sting in the Tale’ makes reference to the apple bumble bee as maybe having never been resident in the UK. The four specimens known were, he explains, found on the dunes near Deal (Kent) in 1865. And whilst he reckons the sightings likely to be genuine, given the stature of the recorder and the existence of specimens, no further records have been confirmed in the 150 plus years since.

We can surmise with some confidence that this isn’t down to under-recording. Given the long-standing and very efficient history of studying bumble bees on these shores it would hardly be missed. As things stand you need to visit central and eastern Europe to catch a glimpse.

In 1999 Lithuania marked several important events on postage stamps. The 400th anniversary of the printing of the first book in the Baltic state was one, two bumble bees which featured on their red list – one being the apple bumble bee – were also of sufficient national interest to feature. 

Bombus pomorum has seen its range alter on the continent. It hasn’t been recorded in Denmark, Spain, or Belgium in recent years. Unlikely to be found near the coast, it is fond of flowers such as thistles, and as agriculture continues to intensify, and so-called weeds are marginalised, it is now viewed as being in an unfavourable or vulnerable condition within its current range.  Additionally, the species is considered to be at risk due to the threat of climate change.

That said there was interesting news recently when two specimens were collected in Siberia.  This was a first for this species, although it could be that rather than expanding its range it had simply gone unnoticed previously.

Apple blossom in the Battleby orchard. ©Lorne Gill/SNH.

We can’t always take a species name as definitive or too literally. Why was the apple bumble bee so named?  That may be lost in time. Sometimes even well known names can be plain misleading, rather like the Koala Bear (which isn’t a bear) or, stepping beyond nature, the Hundred Years War (which lasted 116 years). In the case of the apple bumblebee the name almost suggests it specialises exclusively on apple blossom, which is unlikely given the very limited flowering period.

On Steven Falk’s splendid Flickr Album (a hugely informative and enjoyable resource) he has images of Bombus pomorum and says this: “Only ever known in Britain from Deal Sandhills and adjacent Kingsdown area (three males thought to date from 1857 and a queen from 1864). Considered by some to be a windblown vagrant or temporary colonist rather than a permanent resident, though the Kent population might also have represented a relic population from the pre-agricultural revolution landscape.”

It is estimated that we import around 476,000 tonnes of apples, a figure perhaps made higher than expected because of an apparent 36% decline in the number or orchards here since the mid-1980s. But as a fruit that can be easy to store, is a key element of many ciders, and in a nation where apple pies and apple crumbles are popular winter-warmers, their popularity shows no signs of waning.

In our own apple industry names such as Cox, Smith and Bramley are indelibly linked to our appreciation of apples. The Bramley apple alone, for example, is produced in impressively huge numbers (reckoned in some quarters to be around 83,000 tonnes each year).

There have been many studies looking at how apples are pollinated. All agree that insect pollination is key to apple production, but there is still some way to go in identifying the most successful pollinator of this fruit.  

There are a variety of reasons for scientists being cautious in making sweeping statements. Apples are many and varied. Firstly, there is a widely acknowledged varying nectar and pollen availability between different apple blossom varieties, thus making them more or less attractive to particular species. Secondly the four main guilds of apple pollinators – bumble bees, honey bee, solitary bees, and hoverflies – have different feeding specialisms so will have certain preferences. Thirdly, apples flower at a time when the weather is hugely variable, so the range of species visiting is likely to vary considerably between years.

Science will undoubtedly unravel the mysteries. 150 years on from those sightings in Kent scientists continue to discover more about species. Research examining pollen preserved on the hairs of Natural History Museum specimens has made it possible to gain a better insight on many species’ foraging preferences.

What isn’t in dispute is the major contribution made by a range of insects, especially bees, to apple production, even if we don’t have the services of the apple bumble bee on our shores. When you next bite into an apple remember to thank our insect pollinators.

The name sounds right

When it comes to species, scientific names are used all over the world.  This is with good reason, as their ever-lasting benefit is avoiding confusion and the difficulties of translation. However, there is a place for local names, and Scotland has a particularly rich range of them. Bumblebees are well served in this regard.

Depending on which part of Scotland you are in, the chances are you will find an affectionate name for bumblebees in general. These range from ‘bummer’ to ‘bummiebee, with the likes of ‘bumbard’, ‘bummie’ and ‘bumbee’ featuring too.  The ‘bum’ element of the name refers to the distinctive noise bumblebees are famed for. That’s not surprising. Indeed the scientific name Bombus (which covers bumblebees) derives from the Latin Bombus: to boom, buzz or hum.

That takes us on neatly to ‘droner’, another descriptive name which finds its origins in the sound bumblebees make.

When you drill down into individual species, then the names become even more charming.  Visual appearances as well as sounds begin to feature. A good example is the old ‘baker-bee’ or ‘dusty miller’ moniker given to the common carder bee, which reveals the observation that the flower-spattered, dusty looking, brown coats which bakers used to wear visually echoed a common carder dusted in pollen.

The north-east of Scotland is home to Doric, the regional name for the Scots language as spoken in that part of the world. And it gives us the delightful fusion of sound and vision that is ‘Foggie-toddler’. The roots of the name reflect that fog, an old Scots word for moss, and toddling, which depicts a gentle moving about with the occasional soft accompanying sound.  The ‘foggie-toddler’ name was adapted further in some districts and hence names such as ‘foggie-bee’, ‘foggie-bummer’ and ‘toddler-tyke’.

In Gaelic you will come across Seillean-mòr, pronounced as ‘shellen mor’.  The two elements of the Gaelic name give us Seillean (“bee”) and mòr (“big”). It’s a lovely concise reference.

Scotland, of course, isn’t unique in having local names for bumblebees. Delve into older use of English and you will come across humblebee instead of bumblebee. 

The Humble-bee, by Frederick William Lambert Sladen, was perhaps the great breakthrough bumblebee book. Written in 1912, and recently reprinted, Sladen’s masterpiece is perhaps the last significant use of the ‘humble-bee’ reference. Again it was the distinctive ‘humming’ sound of the moving bumblebee which inspired the name.

Perhaps ‘humble bee’ usage was already on the way out as Sladen made his literary mark.  Two years before Sladen’s book busied printing presses, Beatrix Potter’s Mrs Tittlemouse included a snippet in which the mouse was rather taken by the sound and energy of ‘lodgers’ (bees) when pulling out moss in her mouse hole. Potter conveyed this through using the word ‘bumble’ in the character ‘Babbitty bumble’.

Let’s end this whimsical whistle-stop tour by returning to the scientific name. Bombus is predictably accurate and hones in on the much loved noise that bumblebees make. However, it’s a name that just like the many local versions fits extremely well.

Find out more about scientific names, and their Latin roots, in the blog What’s in a name

Taynish: gold dust!

By Caroline Anderson

This blog covers two visits to Taynish over the course of a week.  The first visit was filled with delight as there was a nice selection of damselflies out, and one or two four-spotted chasers.  I was thrilled, as it had been SO cold this May!

Only a handful of butterflies around but managed to capture this Speckled Wood.   After a holiday weekend of hot weather there should be more butterflies for you to spot – lots of Orange Tips and Small Heaths – these are indeed very small but what they lack in stature they make up for in beauty.  You can get an idea of scale from this dandelion clock. 

One interesting discovery I made as I was rummaging about in the bog at the boardwalk, was this Longhorn Moth – I’ve only ever seen one before and it was during the previous week.   It’s a beautiful gold colour with the most extraordinary antennae.

The bluebells are stunning at the moment, and the air is heavy with their scent.  They are also a great attraction for the pollinator insects – though sometimes you just have to look quite hard for them. This is a scorpion fly making the most of the bluebell cover.

Unfortunately, there was a distinct lack of bees during both visits, I think everything is just a bit later in getting going this year because of the recent low temperatures.   But finally on the pink next to the shore there were one or two getting covered in the gold stuff.  

There was also this wee guy making the most of the pollen – absolutely lathered in it! 

Talking of the gold stuff – check this out!  There’s lots of this type of grass in flower just now – and if you give it a shake you can see the pollen flying out – no wonder my nose is running! 

However, despite the lack of bees during my visits, there is hope, thanks to Heather and Gordon!  

Heather and Gordon, who keep Taynish so special for us all, made some bee houses for our Taynish Trail, and these are now being occupied. If you are considering a bee house, please follow this guidance to assure bees’ health.

The red mason solitary bees pictured below were busily going in and out of the hotel and were an absolute joy to watch.  The holes the bees have been using have been marked to make observation less tricky (that’s what the black dots are next to some of the holes) this also makes photographing them much easier too! 

It’s Garden for Wildlife Week so why not give our pollinators a wee helping hand. Good luck and tag @scotpollinators know how you get on by posting pictures on twitter.

A healthy diet for fussy eaters

By Athayde Tonhasca

Pollen, the fertilizing agent that carries the male gametes (reproductive cells) of flowering plants and grasses, is packed with protein, starch, sugars, fats, vitamins, and inorganic salts: carotenoids and flavonoids add the colouring. This rich resource wouldn’t go untapped by many insects and mites. Among them, bees are the ultimate palynivores (pollen eaters).

To us humans, one pollen grain is indistinguishable from the next: it’s that granular yellow stuff that may cause seasonal allergies such as hay fever. But pollen of different plant species comprises a smorgasbord of chemicals. Protein, by far the most important nutrient as the source of vital amino acids, ranges from 2 to 60% of pollen dry mass. The composition and amount of other essential nutrients vary as well. Some pollen contains secondary metabolites such as alkaloids and glycosides, which are harmful to some bees: buttercups and related species (Ranunculus spp.) for example are toxic to honey bees. Pollen grains of some plant families are coated with a sticky substance called pollenkitt, which probably helps pollination. But just as some people can’t digest lactose, some bees can’t digest pollenkitt.

Miscellaneous pollen grains © Dartmouth College Electron Microscope Facility, Wikipedia Creative Commons

Bees have adapted to the range of pollen quality by adopting diversified diets: most species are polylectic, that is, they collect pollen from various unrelated plants (as opposed to oligolectic species, which specialize on a few related plants). By taking pollen from many sources, bees get a balanced diet and reduce the relative intake of harmful chemicals. When polylectic bees are fed pollen from a single source, they often fail to reproduce or die. The need for nutritional diversity has deep implications for bee conservation. 

Agri-environment programmes throughout Europe have promoted the creation of flower-rich habitats to reduce the impact of agriculture intensification on pollinators. Field margins and other non-crop areas are planted with seed mixtures, and the practice has made a difference: bumble bee declines have slowed or sometimes reversed in recent decades. As a bonus, honey bees and butterflies have benefited as well. However, most solitary bees (which make up about 90% of the approximately 250 species of bees in UK) have been unintentionally left out.

Two of our solitary bees: a miner bee © Pauline Smith, and a leafcutter bee © Saxifraga – Pieter van Breugel

It turns out that seed mixtures comprise a high proportion of legumes (family Fabaceae) such as red clover, white clover and vetch. These plants are good for bumble bees, but are not the best or not suitable at all for many solitary bees. Most species get their pollen from plants such as smooth hawk’s-beard (Crepis capillaris)scentless mayweed(Tripleurospermum inodorum), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), rough chervil (Chaerophyllum temulum), meadow crane’s-bill (Geranium pratense) and dandelions (Taraxacum agg.). Species from the families Asteraceae (daisies, marigold, snakeroot, tansy, thistles) and Apiaceae (cow parsley, wild carrot, ground elder) are also important. 

Weeds or food for pollinators? Smooth hawk’s-beard (L) © Michael Becker, Wikipedia Creative Commons, and wild mustard (R) © Hectonichus, Wikipedia Creative Commons.

These plants grow naturally in and around arable fields, but some of them are not welcomed by farmers because of their invasiveness. Wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis) and wild rose (Rosa canina) for example are excellent sources of pollen for solitary bees, but the first is a serious weed of oilseed rape fields and other crops, and the latter is a climbing shrub, not suitable for field margin management. 

The inclusion of weeds in seed mixtures may not be an option, but a more tolerant attitude towards them would be beneficial and safe. A wild plant does not become a weed until it starts competing with crops, and this threshold may take a while – or it may never be reached. The same principle applies to our gardens: we don’t need to kill weeds willy-nilly for questionable aesthetic reasons.

As in so many areas of conservation, the answer lies in finding a middle ground. We need to cultivate an appreciation for wildness over manicured fields and gardens because just as a varied diet is best for human health, a diversified flora represents an essential buffet for bees and other pollinators.

May the Force be with the bee

By Athayde Tonhasca

If we are asked how a bee finds a flower, we think of smells, colours, shapes and textures. These are important sensory signals, but there is another one whose relevance is just beginning to be understood: electricity.

It has long been known that the platypus, some fish and amphibians, as well as some ants, cockroaches, mosquitoes and fruit flies have the ability to detect external electric forces. However, vertebrates need water as a conductive medium, while most insects respond only to unusually strong electric fields such as those generated by high voltage power lines. Bumble bees however have a sparking story to tell. 

We do not notice it, but our planet is an immense electrical circuit. On a calm day, the air is positively charged, while the ground surface has a negative charge. Now and then the equilibrium of charges is disturbed by lightning bolts or a minor shock from a car door, reminding us we are surrounded by electricity.

The negative charges accumulated on the planet’s surface extend to any object connected to the ground, plants included. So flowers have a slight negative charge in relation to the air around them. As a bee buzzes along in search of food, electrons are stripped off its body by friction with the air, leaving the bee positively charged. When the bee lands on a flower, some of the negatively charged pollen grains stick to the bee, sometimes jumping from the flower even before the bee makes contact. So electrostatic forces are a great aid to pollination.

An electrifying encounter: a positively charged bee approaches a negatively charged flower. Images in the public domain.
Pollen clinging to a sweat bee. © Pixabay.

But flower power reaches shocking levels for the buff-tailed bumble bee (Bombus terrestris), and probably for other bumble bees as well: they are able to sense the weak electric field around a flower. No one knows exactly how they do it, but mechanoreceptive hairs must be involved. These special hairs are innervated at their base, so they detect mechanical stimuli such as air movement and low frequency sounds. Apparently, the flower’s electrical field moves the mechanoreceptive hairs of an approaching bee, similar to the way a rubbed balloon makes your hair stand on end. This hair movement is processed by the bee’s central nervous system and gives information about the shape of the electric field. It is as if the bee ‘sees’ the flower’s electrical aura. 

Bumble bees’ hairs provide thermal insulation, collect pollen and help bees sense air motion, sounds and electricity. ©Kevin Mackenzie, University of Aberdeen. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

But bumble bees’ capacity to detect electric forces may go beyond recognising flowers’ sizes and shapes: they could use the information to maximise foraging trips. Once a positively charged bee lands, the flower’s electric field changes and remains changed for about two minutes after the bee leaves. Researchers believe that an altered field warns the next bee that the flower is temporarily depleted of nectar; it’s like turning off a ‘we are open’ neon sign. So the next bee may as well buzz off to another flower with sufficient negative charges and a decent volume of nectar. 

Bees and other insects detect ultraviolet and polarized light, and use magnetic fields for navigation. Sensing electricity is one more way their world is experienced radically differently from ours.

Nectar network

The Irvine to Girvan nectar network boasts many projects. One interesting task centres around Belleisle and Seafield golf courses, particularly on making the rough more pollinator-friendly.  The courses have been surveyed recently by the Scottish Wildlife Trust working in partnership with South Ayrshire Council’s Golf Service, and the findings make for an interesting read.

Extensive scarification work was undertaken on the roughs in September 2018 .  Many of these areas were sown with wildflower in October 2018. With any project it is always a telling experience to revisit the site to see what has worked and what has struggled. And hence the golf course areas which were sown in 2018 were revisited in July 2019 to look for successes and challenges.

Red clover

Red clover

The surveys at the two golf courses was to prove valuable and given that there was also an intention to note the presence of any pollinating insects there would be a good insight gained into habitat and species.

Yellow rattle

Yellow rattle

At Seafield golf course several patches were inspected, and 50 plant species were noted in 9 distinct sites. It was interesting to note that of 17 species which were present in the seed mix that was used, 12 occurred on the ‘inspection visit’ and three of the 12 were widely evident (pignut, wild carrot and yellow rattle).  Red clover, bird’s-foot trefoil and lesser knapweed. fared relatively well but there was no sign of the devil’s-bit scabious or vetches that had been planted.

A few items which were flourishing at Seafield hadn’t actually formed part of the mix – including white clover, yarrow and harebell.  12 species of pollinators were noted whilst visiting Seafield, including three species of butterfly, three of bee and two types of hoverfly.  The digger wasp was one of the star finds.

Digger wasp

A digger wasp

When the team moved on to Belleisle they found rough that was more densely vegetated, and isolating the ‘sown’ areas was a deal trickier. Again three species in the mix that was sown thrived — lesser knapweed, yellow rattle and pignut. Five elements know to have been sown did not show, including red campion, devil’s-bit scabious and common vetch. Lesser stitchwort, which did not form part of the mix, had done well as had ribwort plantain and creeping buttercup. Four different species of butterfly and 3 kinds of bee were noted during the survey – others may have been present.

One of the Seafield plots that was analysed

One of the Seafield plots that was analysed

The surveys at the two golf courses were useful for gaining a picture on the success, or otherwise, of the mix sown. There was a sense that it might have been more economic, and more productive, to have narrowed the list in the mix. Given that plenty of non-sown items were evident it might be that simply sticking to the highly beneficial yellow rattle would be a good approach, particularly on light, well-drained soils.

The team have also concluded that more scarification would be a good thing — allowing the build up of grass to be cleared and helping move to a one-cut per year scenario. But overall their findings are fascinating and help prove that you never quite know beforehand what will thrive and what will disappear when sowing seeds.

Further reading:

Fnd out more about the Irvine to Girvan nectar network on the Scottish Wildlife Trust website.

All packed up for winter

“I’ll be back”.  It’s one of the most famous and most menacing lines in movie history.  Now, we can’t compare the return of the Terminator to the return of our pollinator trails, but the phrase is fairly appropriate.  This after all is the time of year when we pack up the signs and store them over winter, but come early next spring we dust them down and bring them out again. 

Staff at our reserves have been telling us how popular the information panels we produced for our pollinator trails have been.  Many, many visitors have lingered to take in the information on offer, and there is reason to suspect that it is the more ‘surprising’ panels that provoke most interest.  This was certainly the case of St Cyrus NNR where one of the most popular signs talked about wasps and how beneficial they can be. Busting that myth that wasps are ‘bad guys’ seemed to go down well.

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So where are our five trails lest you should be thinking come 2020 “I’m going to visit these”?

 

Top Major South America Commodities

Furthest north at the moment is our Forvie set of panels.  These are on a short trail immediately adjacent to the visitor centre to the north of the reserve. Topics covered included ‘What you can do to help pollinators’, a look at hoverflies, the red-tailed bumblebee, hibernation sites and the value to pollinators from mowing the grass less. The length of bees’ tongues gets an honourable mention too. With a lovely visitor centre to escape should the weather turn and superb sand dunes you would be hard pressed to get a more idyllic spot than Forvie to find out more about pollinators.

Image - Forvie Pollinator Trail 3 - July 2019

Having said that the staff who work at Creag Meagaidh would argue vehemently that their site is even better. With mountains, regenerating woodlands and a mosaic of marvellous habitats their’s is a reserve super-rich in diversity. It is also home to one of our pollinator trails and with a determination to provide hedgerows and wildflower meadows they certainly do their bit for pollinators here.

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Signs at Creag Meagaidh introduce information about the value of trees for bees, the role of wild roses and the power of flowers.  It’s a lovely mix of subjects that perfectly complements the amazing views this reserve is famed for. Be it the humble bumblebee or the mighty golden eagle this is a reserve that consistently captivates the visitor.

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Moving to the west coast and Taynish NNR offers up a very different experience.  Here oak woodlands, mosses, lichens, saltmarsh and shoreline jostle for attention. For pollinators the reserve offers a little bit of everything. As Caroline Anderson reported regularly in 2019 (complete with her amazing photographs) this is a reserve that pulls its weight when it comes to pollinator provision.

2019 Taynish Pollinator Trail - August - bee on purple loosestrife DSC_15461

Take a walk from the car park down to the mill and you will see pollinator signs revealing fascinating insights into mining bees, clearings and glades for butterflies and the value of some of our climbers.  It’s a lovely reserve, sweet with the smell of salt air, tranquil and yet very much alive with insect interest.

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The same can be said for Flanders Moss in Stirlingshire. The reserve is a sure fire spot to see lizards, and of late harriers have been catching the eye, but for pollinators it’s a bit of a haven too. The car park adjoins a prolific wildflower meadow, sown by local schoolchildren, and the swathe of willows along the path leading onto the boardwalk over ‘the moss’ are an early season bonus for so many pollinators.

Dave Pickett 2

A revealing insight into little-known buzz pollination is popular with visitors, as is a sign devoted to that firm Scottish favourite – heather.  For many children the lure of the viewing platform is a must, and reserve staff use the area at the foot of this panoramic feast to further engage with visitors through posters and factsheets.

2019 Taynish Pollinator Trail - August - red admiral on knapweed DSC_1856

We have pollinator trails at five fabulous reserves and the final piece in the quintet jigsaw is St Cyrus NNR.  Long before we even thought of a pollinator trail, this reserve had a flowery trail – so trails are nothing new to staff here. But with flowers you get pollinators and so the scene was nicely set to talk about our hard pressed pollinating insects.

Clustered Bellflower, St Cyrus NNR, Grampian area. ©Lorne Gill/SNH

The signs here include many of the signs mentioned at our other four reserves, but the ace up the sleeve of the staff at St Cyrus is their children’s activity quiz. Eagle eyed schoolchildren on a day-trip can win a prize by filling in their quiz sheets based on what they read on the signs here.

With prizes up for grabs we are probably back where we began. For surely nothing entices a visitor to utter that famous line of “I’ll be back” than the prospect of a prize … or maybe it’s the lure of the pollinators.  Either way our NNRs are must visit destinations for wildlife and people. And we have certainly saved a space for pollinators.

Photo - Knitted Bees - image for National Knitting Day - June 2019

Marvellous meadows

East Dunbartonshire Council are one of a number of councils converting much of their bland amenity grassland into wildflower meadow.  Under the expert influence of Jackie Gillespie they have made great strides, and as I found out recently, they aren’t finished yet.

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I visited four locations around the Strathkelvin area and saw at first-hand how they are slowly but surely delivering a transformation that is going to be great news for pollinators. And I rather suspect that people are going to like it too.

I started my tour at Lennoxtown in the shadow of the Campsie Fells and the popular cycling challenge that is the famous Crow Road.  Bathed in sunshine down by the River Kelvin I came across a stunning wildflower meadow. This rich meadow is just a few  years old and in summer a glorious technicolour feast for pollinators. The ever-popular John Muir Way runs alongside the meadow and the area is well noted locally. Asking for directions revealed a degree of local pride in ‘our meadow’

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During my visit I saw red-tailed bumblebee, various hoverflies and a generous smattering of butterflies. It was clear that as a source of food the meadow was doing a great job.

A quick hop along the road and I found myself in Bearsden’s Cluny Park. Here a four-year old meadow was perhaps going over, but had,  judging by the comments I heard, made a huge impression locally. Sandwiched between the Bears Way cycle route and busy A81 and has become something of a local landmark. The weather was sunny and fine, the mix of grasses were swaying in the gentle breeze and cyclists were gliding past … all in all a most tranquil scene on the fringes of Scotland’s largest city.

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If the Bearsden meadow is highly visible then the equivalent in Torrance could accurately be described as being ‘tucked away’. This is a new meadow so at the moment the planting has just been completed. As anyone who knows about meadows will testify, you need patience. It isn’t much to look at just now, just a series of pock marks on the grass but given time an array of wildflowers will pop through.  No two meadows are alike, no single meadow is the same year on year … and always there are challenges. Here the challenge might be the proximity to the River Kelvin and the banks of rosebay willow-herb patiently poised for areas to spread into.  Time will tell.

My final port of call was Milton of Campsie, where like Torrance, works are at an early stage. I feel the folks of Milton of Campsie are on the verge of being spoiled, for the ambitious folks at East Dunbartonshire Council have gone for not one, not two, but three meadows. The new meadows promise to give pollinators some great forage in addition to the plethora of gardens that are a proud hallmark of this community.

Creating meadows is a sure-fire way to help pollinators.  Tackling historic loss of habitat, and a shortage of food, is an incredibly practical step to take to help deliver Scotland’s pollinator strategy.   It hasn’t been easy, and it may not look at its best yet, but in time what East Dunbartonshire Council have done will be mightily well-received – by people and pollinators.